Saturday, November 19, 2016

Summary of Financial Accounting

1. According to Stice and Stice
Cash is the most-current assets owned by the company, cash can be directly used as a medium of exchange to acquire other property.
Cash is the medium of exchange and as well as the size of the accounting tool. Which is included in cash within the meaning of accounting is an acceptable means of exchange for the settlement, and can be accepted as a deposit to the bank in the amount of nominal, as well as deposits in banks or other places that can be taken at any time. Cash consists of banknotes, coins, a check which has not been paid, the form of demand deposits.

2. Cash Receipts
It must be shown clearly functions in the cash receipts and all cash receipts should be recorded and paid to the bank. Held separation of functions between the management of cash with cash recording, held tight control over the function of receiving and recording cash, in addition to the daily cash report should be made.

3. Cash Expenditure
, All spending money using a check, except for small expenses paid from petty cash.
, Formed petty cash are closely watched.
, Writing the check is only conducted if the evidence supported complete.
, Separated between those who collect evidence of expenditures, which writes the check, who signed the check and record cash disbursements.
, Held internal audit in a period of uncertainty.
, Required to make daily cash report

4. Petty Cash
Is cash available to pay the expenses which are relatively small and uneconomical if paid by check.
Petty cash management methods:
, imprest system
, fluctuation method
, imprest system

In this system the amount of petty cash always remain, in the amount of the check is handed over to the cashier petty cash to establish a petty cash fund.

5. Bank Reconciliation Statement
If any receipt of money paid to the bank and any spending money (unless the amount is small) used to check the cash account can be compared with bank statements.
, Bank reconciliation report is useful for checking the accuracy of registration in cash accounts and bank records, as well as to determine the revenues and expenditures that have occurred in banks but not yet recorded by the company.
, Bank reconciliation report should be made by an employee who has no interest in cash.

Things that make a difference is as follows
, Elements that the company has been recorded as the receipt of money but not yet recorded by the bank. (Add paint bank)
, Elements that the bank has been recorded as the receipt of money but have not been recorded by the company. (Add paint companies)
, Elements that have been recorded by the company as an expense but the bank has not recorded it. (Reducing paint bank)
, Elements that have been recorded by the bank as an expenditure but has not been recorded by the company. (Reducing paint company)

6. Term Short-Term Investments
Securities purchased must be immediately resold at prices prevailing on the date penjualanya. Penjualanya back by the company intended to fulfill the needs of money.

7. Registration Letter - Securities
Marketable securities are recorded at cost which is the purchase price plus all costs of purchase costs. To record accrued interest can use the account or accounts receivable Interest Income Interest Income.

8. Charges
The bill is the company's claims on money, goods or services to other parties.
The bill could arise from:
, Sales of goods or services
, Providing loans
, Grant advances to subsidiaries
, Sales of fixed assets that are not used
, Accounting recognition for the base period (accrual basic)

Other Definition:
, Claims which are not supported by a written pledge called Receivables
, The bill is supported by a written pledge called Notes receivable.

9. Receivables
How receivable presentation by stating the gross amount of the bill, and how that is not expected to be realized, which must be subtracted from the gross amount of the bill.

Notes receivable
Is written unconditional promise from one party to another party to pay a certain amount on a certain date in the future.
Notes can be transferred can be discounted to the bank prior to maturity.
Notes receivable separated into two:
, Notes receivable not bloom
, Notes receivable flowering

10. Inventory
Inventory is the goods held for resale or used to produce goods that will be sold. In trading company purchased goods for the purpose of resale inventory dagang.Dalam called inventory owned manufacturing company consisting of several different types of supply in a type of manufacturing company:
, Raw Materials and Auxiliary
, Raw materials are goods that will become part of the finished product which can easily be followed by the cost.
, Auxiliary materials are items that are part of the finished product but the number is relatively small or difficult to follow the fee

Another meaning:
suplies Factory
Suplies Factory Was goods that have launched the process of the production function.

WIP is goods that are being worked (processed) but on the balance of goods - the goods had not been completed.

finished product
Namely finished product goods that have been completed in the production process and the waiting time penjualanya.

11. Method of recording inventory.
, physical methods
The use of physical method requires the calculation of items that still exists on the date of the financial statements. In this method the mutation inventory was not followed in the book, each mutation is recorded in a purchase account.

, Methods Books (Perpectual)
In this method each type of inventory created his own account which is the inventory ledger. Compared to physical methods, the method of the book is a better way to record inventories, which could facilitate the preparation of the balance sheet and income statement, can also be used to monitor goods in the warehouse. To determine whether the item will be recorded as inventory, the basis used is proprietary.
Difficulties in determining the movement of goods among other rights arising under the following circumstances:
, Goods in transit (Goods in transit)
, F.o.b. shipping point
, F.o.b. distination point
, Goods - goods that are separated

If there is a large number of sales contracts sometimes the delivery can not be done all at once. Goods - goods that have separated, although not yet delivered its rights had been moved to the buyer. Therefore, at the time of preparation of the financial statements of the goods - the goods must be removed from inventory, and are recorded as sales.

Consigned goods
Goods are entrusted to dijualkan (dikonsinyasikan) rights remain in the deposit (consignor) until the goods are sold. Parties who entrusted (consignee) does not have the right to the goods.

Installment selling
In the installment sales rights over the goods remain on sale until the entire sale price paid.

Summary of Financial Accounting by Drs. Agus Wahono, MM

Artikel Terkait